Posted on January 30, 2013
Four California GHG offset protocols survived an important court test last week in Citizens Climate Lobby et al vs. California Air Resources Board (Superior Court of California, County of San Francisco).
In his January 25, 2013, Statement of Decision, Judge Goldsmith described GHG offsets:
“An offset credit represents a reduction of GHG emissions from an approved uncapped source …Each offset credit represents an emission reduction of one CO2e… An uncapped source is an entity that is not regulated by the cap-and-trade program. Not every reduction is eligible for offset credit. Credits are only awarded to GHG emission reductions carried out pursuant to one of four Protocols promulgated by Respondent [CARB].”
So far, CARB has only approved GHG offset projects in four categories:
1. Forest Projects
2. Urban Forest Projects
3. Livestock Projects
4. Ozone Depleting Substance Projects
CARB also limited the locations of qualifying GHG offset projects and capped the amount of GHG offset credits entities could use to comply with the state’s GHG cap-and-trade program.
Last year, two environmental groups sued CARB in San Francisco Superior Court to block even this limited offset program, claiming that CARB’s approach to satisfying the “additionality” test for GHG offsets conflicted with the California Global Warming Solution Act of 2006 (aka “AB32”). The court described the “additionality” test as follows:
“Additionality is the linchpin of an offset program. A reduction is additional if it would not have occurred without the financial incentive provided by the offset credit. Additionality is essential to the environmental integrity of an offset program because if reductions are not additional, then the cap-and-trade program will not reduce GHG emissions beyond what would have occurred anyway. . . .”
For its four GHG offset Protocols, CARB adopted a “standard-based approach,” relying on information about the additionality of categories of prospects. The petitioners preferred that CARB evaluate each offset project’s additionality individually, project-by-project, based on site-specific data and parameters.
CARB vigorously defended its approach to additionality and its GHG offset Protocols in this case. Several California utilities and coalitions intervened on CARB’s side. Very significantly, the Environmental Defense Fund and the Nature Conservancy also sided with CARB in this case.
In his January 25 Statement of Decision Judge Goldsmith upheld CARB’s offset Protocols on all issues. In particular, he found that:
1. “… as to the Livestock Protocol, the Ozone Depleting Substances Protocol, the Urban Forests Protocol, and the U.S. Forests Protocol, that [CARB] has adequately considered all relevant factors and has demonstrated a rational connection between these factors, the policy implemented, and the purpose of the enabling statutes …the Protocols are not arbitrary and capricious.”
2. “… Health and Safety Code section 38562, subdivision (d)(2) does not foreclose [CARB] from using standardized mechanisms [for additionality] and it is within the [CARB’s] legislatively delegated lawmaking authority to choose standardized mechanisms …”
3. “… [CARB’s] use of standardized mechanisms is supported by evidence contained in the administrative record.”
4. “… Petitioners have failed to demonstrate that the Legislature foreclosed the use of standardized additionality mechanisms or demonstrate that [CARB] acted arbitrarily or capriciously in promulgating additionality standards."
Prompted by CARB and the Intervenors, the court recognized the important roles that GHG offsets play in reducing the cost of GHG emission reductions and promoting innovation. The court’s 34 page opinion thoroughly analyzes complex legal issues, including the “additionality” issue. Along the way, the court also accepted CARB’s rejection of the Kyoto Protocols’ Clean Development Mechanism (“CDM”), finding as follows:
“The Court finds the factors which have rendered the CDM problematic in terms of administrative complexity, delay, and cost, to be highly persuasive in concluding that [CARB’s] rejection of the CDM project-by-project approach was justified programmatically and consistent with its legislative grant of discretion.” (Statement, p. 11)
This finding, and much of this court decision, may be of interest to climate practitioners here in the U.S. and overseas.
Posted on January 25, 2013
In Bernstein v. Bankert, the Seventh Circuit follows the Second, Third, Eighth, and Eleventh Circuits in holding a CERCLA plaintiff with a contribution claim under Section 113(f) does not have a cost recovery claim under Section 107. But when does a signatory to an administrative order on consent (AOC) have a contribution claim?
Plaintiffs incurred response costs arising out of two administrative orders on consent (AOC). The first AOC resulted in an engineering evaluation and cost analysis of removal options. The second AOC resulted in implementation of the selected removal action.
The first AOC was carried out to its completion. Completion of the second AOC was conditioned, however, upon the “complete and satisfactory performance by Respondents of their obligations under this Order” and issuance of a Notice of Completion by EPA, and neither condition had occurred at the time of the summary judgment.
The district court held plaintiffs could only sue in contribution and the limitations period had run on claims under both AOCs.
The court of appeals agreed on the claim arising out of the first AOC since that AOC had been completed and too much time had passed before suit was filed. It disagreed on the claim arising out of the costs incurred under the second AOC, however, because Section 113(f)(3)(B) of CERCLA gives a contribution action to a person “who has resolved its liability to the United States … in an administratively … approved settlement,” and the second AOC had not yet been completed. Thus, plaintiffs had not “resolved their liability” to the United States and could only bring a claim under Section 107 for which the limitations period had not yet run. The court of appeals also held that whether costs are incurred voluntarily or involuntarily is irrelevant since 113(f)(3)(B) focuses only on whether liability had been “resolved.”
There was no discussion of what might happen if the second AOC was completed during the course of the litigation so all CERCLA lawyers should stay tuned.
Posted on January 23, 2013
On January 9, 2013, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) issued a final White Paper addressing the use of “mine influenced water” (MIW) in oil and natural gas operations. For purposes of the White Paper, MIW is characterized as “water contained in a mine pool or a surface discharge of water caused by mining activities that pollutes, or may create a threat of pollution to, waters of the Commonwealth” and “may also include surface waters that have been impacted by pollutional mine drainage.” The White Paper outlines (1) the process for reviewing proposals to utilize MIW, (2) options for storing MIW (i.e. impoundments, tanks, etc.) prior to being used for oil and natural gas well development, and (3) possible solutions to long-term liability issues.
PADEP Secretary Mike Krancer deemed the use of MIW as a “win” for Pennsylvania’s environment and economy. According to PADEP, more than 300 million gallons of water are discharged from Pennsylvania mines each day. The water discharged, after being introduced to sulfides and other minerals occurring naturally within the mine, can be harmful to the receiving streams. The natural gas industry uses between 3-5 million gallons of fresh water, typically withdrawn from surface waters and groundwater sources, for each well completion operation. MIW use provides natural gas companies an alternative source of water for hydraulic fracturing operations with the potential to both lessen the natural gas industry’s dependence on freshwater sources and divert polluted water from watersheds.
While the use of MIW in natural gas production operations can be an economical and environmentally beneficial practice, certain issues, particularly long-term liability, may require additional regulatory or legislative action before the practice becomes a viable option for the natural gas industry. For example, under the current interpretation of Pennsylvania’s Clean Streams Law, an operator’s act of pumping water from an abandoned mine pool could create a legal obligation to treat the resulting discharge. PADEP’s White Paper suggests two options for reducing a MIW user’s long-term liability: 1) obtaining protection from civil liability by qualifying for a “water abatement project” under Pennsylvania’s Environmental Good Samaritan Act; and 2) entering into a Consent Order and Agreement with the state. Unfortunately, neither of these options guarantees protection from all potential liabilities under federal and state law for conditions associated with abandoned mines.
Notwithstanding certain concepts that require further consideration, PADEP’s White Paper serves as a platform for Pennsylvania and other states to promote the responsible production of coal and natural gas and, at the same time, to address some of the environmental challenges associated with both. It is hoped PADEP’s White Paper will stimulate discussions regarding the use of MIW for natural gas production in other states with large reserves of coal and natural gas like Ohio, West Virginia, and Wyoming. With additional input from stakeholders across various states, anticipated environmental and economic benefits of this practice may become a reality.
Posted on January 18, 2013
Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Although the statutory language is straight-forward, EPA has run into enormous difficulties in promulgating rules to implement Section 316(b).
The latest in a series of rulemaking efforts began on April 20, 2011 when EPA published a proposed rule to protect fish from being killed at water intake structures that withdraw at least 2,000,000 gallons per day from waters of the United States and use at least 25% of the water they withdraw exclusively for cooling purposes. Pursuant to a Settlement Agreement with the environmental group, Riverkeeper, and other organizations, EPA was required to issue the revised rule by July 27, 2012.
When I last wrote about this rulemaking effort by EPA, EPA had received more than 1,100 comment letters and more than 80 documents containing new data for possible use in developing the final impingement mortality limitations. On June 12, 2012, EPA offered a 30-day comment period on the new information with comments due on or before July 11, 2012.
Through the Notice of Data Availability published by EPA on June 12, 2012, EPA also presented data it had received related to the results of EPA’s stated preferences survey. Comments on the data related to EPA’s preference survey were also required to be submitted on or before July 12, 2012.
In my previous blog on this subject, I wrote it was hard for me to understand how EPA would be able to comply with a court-ordered issuance date of new rulemaking by July 27.
Not surprisingly, EPA was unable to issue its new rule by July 27. Instead, EPA entered into a Second Amendment to the Settlement Agreement with Riverkeeper and other organizations. The Settlement Agreement contains the following language: “Not later than June 27, 2013, the EPA Administrator shall sign for publication in the Federal Register a notice of its final action pertaining to issuance of requirements for implementing Section 316(b) of the CWA at existing facilities.” Since entry of the extension, EPA has been remarkably silent about any steps it plans to take prior to the June 27, 2013 deadline for notice of final action.
Concurrent activity at the state level is also of interest. Prior to this latest extension, EPA Region 1 sent about ten extensive Section 308 information requests to facilities in Maine to set the stage for possible issuance of case-by-case, best professional judgment permit requirements pursuant to 316(b) for the selected facilities. It is unclear how the facilities were selected given other Maine facilities also met the proposed thresholds. Those facilities have responded to the information requests but further action even on those facilities is on hold. EPA Region 1 and the Maine DEP have now determined that DEP, which administers a partially delegated NPDES program, now has the statutory capacity to administer the 316(b) program. DEP is in the process of formally seeking explicit delegation for the 316(b) program as anticipated under the original EPA-DEP NPDES Memorandum of Agreement. The DEP has indicated it intends to wait until after EPA issues a final rule implementing Section 316(b) before DEP decides how it proposes to implement 316(b) as a delegated state.
Posted on January 16, 2013
The concept of a “Waiver Rule” to be promulgated by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (“NJDEP” or “Department”) created both excitement within the New Jersey regulated community and consternation among environmental groups. Business and development interests saw a Waiver Rule as a long overdue attempt by NJDEP to bring some flexibility into the State’s environmental regulatory experience. Environmentalists were convinced the Waiver Rule concept would open the door for polluters and greedy developers to complete an end run around New Jersey’s complex environmental statutory and regulatory scheme. A coalition of environmental and conservation groups initiated litigation challenging the adoption of the Waiver Rule. The environmentalists argued their case against the validity of the Waiver Rule before a three-judge appellate panel on January 14. In response to this argument, representatives of the business community told the court that a common sense approach to environmental regulation in New Jersey, as embodied in the Waiver Rule, is needed to spur economic development. It is likely this issue will end up before the New Jersey Supreme Court.
The Waiver Rule, N.J.A.C. 7:1B, became reality in response to Governor Chris Christie’s Executive Order No. 2, which attempted to instill “common sense principles” into the governing of New Jersey. Executive Order No. 2 and the Waiver Rule promised a better environmental regulatory climate to improve the State’s economy.
Will the Waiver Rule, effective as of August 1, 2012, actually make a difference? In its first five months, the Waiver Rule does not yet seem worthy of the regulated community’s early enthusiasm or the trepidation of the environmental groups. To date, NJDEP has still not approved a waiver under the Waiver Rule and, according to NJDEP’s Office of Permit Coordination & Environmental Review, only fourteen waiver applications have been accepted for review by NJDEP since August 1st.
NJDEP’s philosophy on the implementation of the Waiver Rule may well be embodied in N.J.A.C. 7:1B-1.1(b) which states: “[i]t is not the purpose of this chapter to allow for the routine circumvention of any Department rule.” The NJDEP guidance makes clear that application of the Waiver Rule will be limited. Only NJDEP (and not any Licensed Site Remediation Professional) is allowed to grant a waiver under the Waiver Rule. Will NJDEP ever get to “yes” on a waiver application? Time will tell.
CLICK HERE TO READ FULL ARTICLE
Posted on January 15, 2013
The Attorney Generals of thirteen states (Alabama, Arizona, Georgia, Kansas, Michigan, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Utah and Wyoming) are investigating EPA's sue-and-settle practice. At issue is the EPA's practice of entering into voluntary settlements of lawsuits brought by environmental groups, through consent decrees, in which the EPA commits itself to promulgate environmental rules and regulations, often under strict time schedules, without input from other stakeholders and impacted parties, including the states. Often-times the EPA also reimburses the environmental group for its attorney fees. Although the stakeholders may have input in the subsequent rulemaking process, the concern is that the effectiveness of such input may be limited because certain results are prescribed by the voluntary settlement or because the agreed schedule effectively limits meaningful input and consideration.
These same concerns were also recently discussed in the June 28, 2012, hearing before the Oversight and Government Reform Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives. Hearing statements and testimony provided good descriptions of (i) how sue-and-settle settlements are a form of "off ramp" rulemaking bypassing the traditional rulemaking concepts of transparency, public participation and judicial review; (ii) how billions of dollars in added costs and millions of lost jobs have resulted from these off ramp settlements and why these added regulatory burdens may not have resulted had the traditional rulemaking process been followed; and (iii) the specific impact of EPA's sue-and-settle settlement upon the Regional Haze rules.
On August 10, 2012, the thirteen Attorney Generals submitted a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request to EPA. Among other things, the request seeks communications between EPA and 80 identified "interested organizations", and specifically identifies 33 sue-and-settle settlements entered into by EPA in the last three years. After noting in a press release that EPA entered into one consent decree on the same day the lawsuit was filed, the states seek to determine whether there was collusion to advance a common agenda between the environmental groups and EPA. The FOIA request’s stated purpose is to provide a report to be furnished to the states and Congress outlining EPA's practice. So far, the EPA has done little but object to producing documents, seeking to impose fees upon the states even though the request should be exempt from fees. No meaningful production of documents has occurred.
Certainly there are some good arguments to be made regarding the benefits of allowing citizen groups to file lawsuits to hold EPA accountable. Similarly, there are articles refuting the suggestion of collusion concerning certain prior EPA settlements. Nevertheless, where important environmental policy issues are at stake with far reaching economic consequences, there should never be any question about collusion or secrecy. Transparency should always be the watchword. EPA’s production of the requested documents would do much to advance the goal of transparency. If the settlements were in the best interest of the public, they should be able to withstand the glare of public scrutiny.
Posted on January 11, 2013
On January 3, 2013, an EPA-set TMDL for Accotink Creek (a Fairfax County, Virginia tributary of the Potomac River) was invalidated on the grounds EPA exceeded its statutory authority when it attempted to regulate, via the TMDL, a Clean Water Act pollutant – sediment – by instead regulating a surrogate non-pollutant – stormwater flow. The opinion granted plaintiff’s motion for judgment on the pleadings; in a separate order Judge O’Grady vacated the Accotink Creek TMDL and remanded the matter to EPA for further consideration.
Utilizing the two-step Chevron statutory interpretation analysis, the court found the first of the two criteria had been met: Congress had addressed in unambiguous language the precise question at issue “… and its answer is that EPA’s authority does not extend to establishing TMDLs for nonpollutants as surrogates for pollutants.” While directly acknowledging he did not need to reach the second Chevron criterion (whether the agency’s reading of an ambiguous statute is “permissible”), Judge O’Grady nonetheless noted in some detail that “there is substantial reason to believe EPA’s motives go beyond ‘permissible gap-filling.’”
Based upon EPA’s own pleadings, the opinion notes it appears the Agency could have set a TMDL based upon the underlying problem – sediment in the creek – rather than pursuing a surrogate approach.
In recent years, EPA has been pursuing so-called “innovative” TMDLs in an attempt to address stormwater’s contribution to impaired watersheds. In particular, those TMDLs purport to set load limits based upon various surrogate approaches, including such things as the percentage of impervious cover (“IC”) allowed in the impacted watershed, or (as with Accotink Creek) stormwater flow rates. While the Accotink Creek TMDL was in EPA Region 3, New England’s Region 1 seems to be in the forefront of this approach and currently has at least three stormwater-source TMDLs in place (including two so-called IC-TMDLs), as well as others in development.
Given the extensive resources EPA has invested in trying to manage stormwater impacts to impaired streams (see e.g., TMDLs to Stormwater Permits Handbook (Draft Nov 2008)), the Virginia Dept. of Transportation case is clearly a significant setback for the surrogate approach propounded by the Agency. Whether the United States appeals the decision or retreats and re-evaluates its initiatives in this area is yet to be determined. Whichever way EPA decides to go, communities dealing with impaired watersheds certainly will need to pay close attention.
Posted on January 10, 2013
On January 8, 2013, the U. S. Supreme Court unanimously held that flow from an improved portion of a waterway into an unimproved portion of the same waterway—even if polluted—does not qualify as “discharge of pollutants” under the Clean Water Act (CWA). Although this case arises in the context of a municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4), it has major implications for dam owners everywhere. The case reaffirms evolving doctrine that dams are not point sources requiring National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permits per Section 402 of the CWA.
In Los Angeles County Flood Control District v. Natural Resources Defense Council, environmental groups brought a CWA citizen suit against the District for violating the terms of the District’s NPDES permit to operate the MS4 facilities. It was undisputed that water quality standards had repeatedly been exceeded for a range of pollutants, as measured at the District’s monitoring stations in the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Rivers. The District collected storm water in concrete channels before discharging back to the river, and the monitoring stations were within the concrete channels. It was also undisputed that many other upstream parties contributed to the contamination.
Plaintiffs argued that since the monitoring stations were within the control of the District, the District had responsibility for meeting standards. But that was not the issue for the Court. Instead, the Court focused on whether a “discharge of pollutants” occurs when polluted water flows from one portion of a river, through an engineered improvement, and then back again to the same river. The Court answered in the negative, citing its 2004 decision in South Fla. Water Management Dist., v Miccosukee Tribe. In Miccosukee, the Court held that pumping polluted water from one part of a water body to another part of the same water body is not a discharge of pollutants.
This decision should come as welcome news to dam and hydroelectric plant owners. Prior to Miccosukee and now LA County, the federal Courts of Appeal simply deferred to EPA judgment as to whether a dam could be said to “add” pollutants originating upstream when it passes them through penstocks or spillways to the river below. The Supreme Court, however, has firmly established a rule of law that CWA Section 402 is implicated only where the upstream and downstream river segments are “meaningfully distinct water bodies,” a condition that will rarely exist for in-river dams.
Posted on January 9, 2013
In my August 24, 2010 submission, I discussed the water wars between Oklahoma and Texas, summarizing the lower court holding in Tarrant Regional Water District v. Herman, et al. The gist of the dispute is that a Texas water district wants to buy Oklahoma water, but Oklahoma isn’t selling, and has passed laws that effectively preclude the sale. The Tarrant Regional Water District (“TRWD”) cried foul, but the District Court did not agree with TRWD that Oklahoma’s refusal to sell water across state lines was a violation of the Commerce Clause. Judgment was entered on July 16, 2010, and the case appealed to the Tenth Circuit shortly thereafter. The Tenth Circuit affirmed the District Court. 656 F.3d 1222 (10th Cir. 2011).
The Appellate Court decided that Oklahoma statutes which precluded water being sold to users in Texas did not violate the Commerce Clause because the Red River Compact preempted it. Recall that the Red River Compact (signed by Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana and Arkansas in 1978 and approved by Congress) divided the water from the Red River and its tributaries among the states involved. The Compact has general language that gives the signatory states authority over the water allocated to them within their borders. The Tenth Circuit held Texas to its bargain on the Compact and agreed with Oklahoma that the refusal to sell Oklahoma water to Texas users does not violate the Commerce Clause.
Now, the United States Supreme Court will weigh in on the subject, as it granted certiorari on January 4, 2013. Stay tuned.
Posted on January 7, 2013
Environmental practitioners and their clients have benefitted greatly from the EPA’s historic implementation of the EPA Audit Policy. Thus, the level of concern that has been expressed by environmental practitioners in response to EPA’s statements that the Audit Policy may not live through 2013 is not surprising. For background, see Linda Bochert’s posting, “Dear EPA: please don’t abandon your Audit Policy!”, and FY2013 OECA National Program Manager Guidance.
EPA has discussed the basis for its proposal to abandon the Audit Policy in terms of perceived decreasing utility, which creates difficulty in justifying the expense of implementation. The explanation goes something like this: with the maturity of the environmental programs, regulated industry knows that it needs to comply by now, thus the incentives provided by the Audit Policy are no longer necessary. Also, along with industry outgrowing the original purpose of the Policy, the cost of implementing the policy does not justify its continued implementation in this era of shrinking budgets, particularly given the relatively minor noncompliance events reported pursuant to the Audit Policy.
Has EPA really considered the entire calculus? And, assuming one buys into the external benefits provided by the continued implementation of the Audit Policy, given what’s at stake, isn’t it worth developing options for implementation that don’t impose the same level of staff investment?
Many believe that the Audit Policy has served a purpose far greater than the mere forgiveness of the gravity component of the reported noncompliance events. For many years, the EPA Audit Policy has provided regulated entities with a mechanism to conduct compliance audits with confidence that noncompliance issues can be corrected without fear of punitive enforcement action. The Audit Policy continues to serve this purpose, despite the maturity of the environmental programs, because the nature of regulated entities and industry sectors is so dynamic. Regulated entities are in a constant state of change, as are many EPA programs at any one time. EPA’s assertion that the EPA’s Audit Policy is no longer needed contemplates regulated entities and applicable regulations as static and monolithic bodies and does not recognize the constant state of change across industry sectors and within individual entities, particularly in response to new and modified regulations. Industry sectors also vary in their inherent levels of sophistication and adaptability to changing regulatory requirements, depending in large part upon the degree to which the industry has been pervasively regulated in the past. New regulations across an industry sector upset the equilibrium and demand new management models and compliance approaches, requiring a period of education, acquisition of staff, operational and cultural adaptation to the new requirements. Adaptation within industry sectors can be slowed when immediate demands are placed on sector resources for all entities in that sector simultaneously such as occurs with new industry sector-wide regulation, prioritizing rapid reaction to new regulation over comprehensive proactive compliance. In this regulatory environment, the Audit Policy continues to serve the same purpose as it always has, to encourage a culture of compliance in the dynamic landscape in which regulated entities operate.
To read more and provide your own input on how you believe EPA should approach the future of the EPA Audit Policy, click here.
Posted on January 4, 2013
Tremendous progress has been made in protecting and restoring the environment over the past 40 years since the passage of major legislation at the federal, state, and provincial levels in the United States and Canada. However, our skill at measuring that progress is somewhat limited, and we may not have the kind of information we need to judge the health of our ecosystems or the effectiveness of our programs. There have been some good efforts on an international, national, state, and provincial basis to evaluate the state of the environment using certain indicators, but one area needing much more attention is the Great Lakes.
Although there are many indicators monitored on a continuing basis in the Great Lakes, the real difficulty has been synthesizing the information in a way that puts officials in a position to communicate effectively with the public, policy makers, and managers about whether the Great Lakes are getting better, worse, or staying the same. The International Joint Commission (IJC) initiated an effort recently through its Water Quality Board (WQB) and Science Advisory Board (SAB) to identify a limited number of core indicators for this freshwater resource. What’s needed now is a consensus among the scientific and policy leaders on the Great Lakes on the “few indicators that tell us the most” about the waters.
It was not hard to tell the Great Lakes were in trouble when enough dead alewives washed up on its shores requiring front end loaders to remove them, the Cuyahoga River and other tributaries caught fire, and Lake Eric was declared “dead” because of massive algal blooms. Many of these conditions on the Great Lakes led to both a public outcry and Congressional action in order to deal with the lakes’ water pollution and other environmental problems. As programs were put in place to keep oil out of the rivers and reduce nutrient loadings to the lakes, significant visible improvements were seen. The underlying data was available to support the observations, but the visible improvements plus much better fishing success told the story in an easily observable way.
Things are much more complicated now. When looking at the fundamental three legged stool supporting the Great Lakes’ ecosystem, being the chemical, physical, biological integrity of the resource, it is not easy to gage. With regard to chemicals, very low concentrations of legacy pollutants like PCBs and dioxins can cause serious problems. Likewise, ongoing contamination from airborne deposition of mercury is a real concern. New chemicals such as flame retardants are the next problem area with which to deal. Invasive species such as the zebra and quagga mussels, the ever present sea lampreys, and the threat from the Asian carp are a constant problem for maintaining the biological balance in the system. From a physical standpoint, expanding urbanization, suburban sprawl, and the manifestations of climate change are also adding tremendous pressure on the Great Lakes. What’s needed is a core set of chemical, physical, and biological indicators of the health of the ecosystem and the effectiveness of the programs to protect and restore it.
Good progress is being made on this front. After several months of work by some of the top Great Lakes’ scientists and policy makers, a group of just over twenty indicators has been preliminarily identified, with a smaller group as the core. They include:
Physical: Coastal wetlands, land cover, and tributary physical integrity
Chemical: Nutrient concentrations and loadings, and persistent bio - accumulative toxics
Biological: Lower food web productivity/health, fish species of interest, harmful and nuisance algae, aquatic invasive species
Much of the foundation for the work done recently comes from what is known as the State of the Lakes Ecosystem Conference (SOLEC), which is a large gathering, primarily of scientists, held every two years to review and evaluate a large number of Great Lakes’ indicators on the Great Lakes.
What needs to happen next is for the IJC first to adopt a set of core indicators as the ones that tell us the most about the resource, then inform the U.S. and Canadian governments of its findings. Under the recently updated Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, the parties are responsible for establishing ecosystem indicators for the Great Lakes.
With a set of core indicators, both countries will be in a much better position to communicate with the public, elected officials, and managers about the health of the ecosystem and the effectiveness of programs. In addition, our governments will be in a position to make better choices about the allocation of increasingly scarce resources to maximize the return on investment for improving the health of the Great Lakes, the largest, surface freshwater system in the world.
Posted on January 2, 2013
Montana’s state constitution contains what is arguably the most stringent environmental protection clause of any state. Article II, Section 3 of the Montana Constitution guarantees all persons “the right to a clean and healthful environment.” This provision is paired with Article IX, Section 1, which says the “state and each person shall maintain and improve a clean and healthful environment in Montana for present and future generations.” Although these clauses have been in the state constitution since 1972, they rarely have been applied by the Montana Supreme Court to invalidate legislation, overturn state action or to provide a private remedy. In October, 2012, the Montana Supreme Court rejected the latest attempt to apply these provisions.
Montana is a coal-rich state. The State of Montana owns significant quantities of this coal. The State Land Board controls the leasing of state-owned coal. In 2010, the land board approved a massive lease to Arch Coal. Montana received an $85 million bonus payment for this lease.
In addition to the environmental-protection provisions of the state constitution, Montana has a state environmental policy act, structured similarly to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Montana Environmental Policy Act (MEPA) contains a number of exemptions from environmental review that would otherwise be required. One of these provisions exempts the land board from the obligation to undertake environmental review at the leasing stage, so long as a lease contains a provision stating that actual mining is subject to further environmental permitting. The land board relied on this exemption to issue leases to Arch Coal without first undertaking MEPA review.
Several environmental groups challenged the land board’s leasing action, arguing that the application of the MEPA exemption violated the Montana Constitution on an as applied basis. They argued that the leasing decision opened the door to the mining and burning of large quantities of coal without environmental review. A state district court found that mining and burning coal could exacerbate global climate change, which in turn could adversely affect water, air and agriculture in Montana. Based on this finding, the district court declined to dismiss the case, but it also refused to grant summary judgment to the NGO plaintiffs on the constitutional claim. The district court concluded that the State retained sufficient environmental protection mechanisms at the mine permitting stage to meet its constitutional obligations.
The NGO plaintiffs appealed the case to the Montana Supreme Court. In Northern Plains Resource Council v. Montana Board of Land Commissioners, the Supreme Court upheld the district court and rejected the constitutional challenge. Although the Supreme Court confirmed the fundamental right to a clean and healthful environment and acknowledged potential global climate change implications of further coal development, the Court held that it was not required to apply a strict scrutiny analysis to the statutory exemption from MEPA. The Court concluded that “the act of leasing” did not interfere with the exercise of a fundamental right requiring “demonstration of a compelling State interest.” Instead, the Court applied a “rational basis” test to conclude that the potential for additional environmental review at the permitting stage was sufficient. On that basis, the Supreme Court held that the exemption from MEPA review did not violate the Montana Constitution.
Posted on January 2, 2013
An earlier post noted that adaptation to climate change is inevitable and is finally emerging as a priority for public policy. Long overshadowed by campaigns to prevent or slow global warming, federal and state initiatives and efforts by many professionals have resulted in efforts to start to collect data and promote serious planning for ocean rise and other effects of climate change.
Storm Sandy has more than reinforced that trend: it has established a much wider recognition that planning, design, engineering and regulatory decisions must incorporate the expected impacts of climate change and can no longer rely on historic weather and temperature conditions. That shift will have broad implications throughout the legal system, amounting to an emerging law of adaptation to climate change that is distinguishable from the emerging law of greenhouse gas controls.
As often is true, the legal academy is in the vanguard – there is a surge of law review articles and also a recent compilation published by the ABA.
For example, utility regulators have broad authority to require public service companies to prudently operate and maintain their systems. It is common for regulators to require emergency response plans, and, in some states, to impose significant penalties for overly delayed restoration of service after storm events.
Now, regulators are likely to require utilities also take account of changes because of global warming effects, not just based on historic conditions. Environmental groups recently petitioned NY regulators to so require.
But how exactly can this step be done? Modeling of the timing and extent of climate change effects can only produce broad ranges and generalities and are indefinite about effects at particular locations. What retrofitting is needed to assure reliable service to far future ratepayers and at what expense to current ratepayers? Ratepayers, regulators and utility stockholders will not reach agreement without significant dispute.
Existing zoning for flood plains should be modified to account for climate change. Making those changes will trigger large disputes as previously settled expectations are overturned. Until the rules are changed, are zoning bodies tied to outdated flood control maps incorporated into their regulations, or can they consider supplemental, updated information?
Environmental impact reviews for proposed projects typically address the effects of a project on the environment. Now must they consider the effects of the environment on the project? How? It will be litigated.
Also, as noted in an earlier post, the public trust doctrine might not serve to require regulatory agencies to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. But will it successfully undergird a state’s assertion of authority to regulate activities on or affecting lands subject to the public trust in order to account for changes and threats to shorelines? As beaches recede, will public trust lands start to incorporate currently private property?
The common law of property, too, will be affected. A landowner can lose title to land if it slowly disappears by reliction due to changes in a water body’s natural behavior, whereas a sudden loss by avulsion allows the landowner to keep title and restore the land. But what if the sudden loss is due to a storm event that is part of a slow rise in ocean levels?
Finally, at what point will it become clear that professionals must take account of global warming in designing structures or else experience risk of liability for unanticipated effects?